'Behold [Dajjal] is in the Syrian sea, or the Yemeni sea. Nay, on the contrary he is in the East, he is in the East, he is in the East,' and he pointed with his hand towards the East.
(Sahih Muslim, Book #041, Hadith #7028)
(Sahih Muslim, Book #041, Hadith #7028)
In 1921, Polish explorer Ferdynand Ossendowski published Beasts, Men, and Gods, an account of his travels in the Far East during the time of the Russian Revolution. In section V of the work (Chapters 46-49), Ossendowski recounts how, after a strange presence was felt in a Tibetan valley which disturbed his guides and upset their animals, he was told the legends of the "Brahytma", the World-King of Tibetan Buddhism.
We hurriedly went on till we came to [a] monastery and found a well-built person there with his hands tied to his neck and having iron shackles between his two legs up to the ankles. We said: Woe be upon thee, who are you? And he said:...I am going to tell you about myself. I am Dajjal and would be soon permitted to get out... (ibid)
More than sixty thousand years ago a Holyman disappeared with a whole tribe of people under the ground and never appeared again on the surface of the earth. (pg. 302)This kingdom, the lama goes on to explain, was visited by many saints and mystics, including the Sakyamuni Buddha (the historical founder of Buddhism). Its location is obscure, but the kingdom is known to be a veritable heaven on earth, and ruled by an all-powerful man:
All the people there are protected against Evil and crimes do not exist within its bournes. Science has there developed calmly and nothing is threatened with destruction. The subterranean people have reached the highest knowledge. Now it is a large kingdom, millions of men with the King of the World as their ruler. He knows all the forces of the world and reads all the souls of humankind and the great book of their destiny. Invisibly he rules eight hundred million men on the surface of the earth and they will accomplish his every order. (ibid)Another Lama added further detail on the World-King, telling him that the king and his companions have the powers “of the earth, of inferno and of the sky and […] can do everything for the life and death of man”, and that "by his order trees, grasses and bushes can be made to grow; old and feeble men can become young and stalwart; and the dead can be resurrected." (pg 304).
In short, the Brahytma is seen as a living God who rules over a perfect, paradisiacal kingdom called either Agharti or Shambhala.
Shortly before finishing his book, Ossendowski was told by a high ranking Lama that the King of the World had appeared before the monks of his monastery in 1891 and given them a dire "prophecy". Mostly, it was a generic doomsday warning, but one part referred specifically to Muslims:
The 'Crescent' will grow dim and its followers will descend into beggary and ceaseless war. Its conquerors will be stricken by the sun but will not progress upward and twice they will be visited with the heaviest misfortune, which will end in insult before the eye of the other peoples. (pg. 313)The prediction ended with the words "...Then the peoples of Agharti will come up from their subterranean caverns to the surface of the earth." (pg. 314)
Prophecies about the emergence of the people of the subterranean kingdom, along with their all-powerful king, are an integral part of Tibetan Buddhist eschatology. The Kalachakra Tantra, a central scripture of Tibetan Buddhism, prophesies that in the last age, the last King of Shambhala/Agharti, Rudra Chakrin ("wrathful wheel turner"), also known as Rigden Djapo, will emerge from his kingdom to slay the wicked, conquer the earth, and make the true doctrine reign supreme over all. The sixth Panchen Lama described this scenario in the following prayer to Rudra Chakrin:
Thee, great lama, who lives in this paradise land and who is constantly in prayer, shall adopt the title of Rigden Djapo and shall defeat the armies of lalo. Thy army shall include people of many nations. Thee shall have 40,000 large wild elephants, four millions of mad elephants, many warriors, and Thee shall pierce the heart of the king of lalo... Thy people shall tame the lalo's protectors, and the lalo's influence shall be totally gone. And then the time shall come when the true faith spreads all over.” (Red Shambhala, pg. 5)The "lalo" being referred to in these prophecies are described in Tibetan Buddhist texts as a group of "barbarians" that Rudra Chakrin will destroy, along with their "false doctrines". "Lalo" is a Tibetan equivalent of the Sanskrit term "mleccha", and is used to refer to all people of non-Dharmic faiths. It is used, more specifically, in the Kalachakra Tantra to refer to the followers of "Adam, Noah, Abraham, and five others – Moses, Jesus, the White-Clad One, Muhammad, and Mahdi [...]" (Verse I.154, The Abridged Kalachakra Tantra). They are said to have been the propagators of the false dharma (path, religion) of the mlecchas. The message they brought is referred to as "tamas" (literally "darkness", but it is used more specifically in Buddhism to refer to teachings which are utter falsehood).
The Shambhala/Agharti myth with its vision of an occult rulership of the world and terrifying apocalyptic narrative, has fascinated Western mystics since the nineteenth century and figures prominently in the thought of the Theosophical Society, the Russian painter and explorer Nicholas Roerich, the French “Synarchist” Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre, and the Traditionalist/Sufi philosopher Rene Guenon.
In his book Lord of the World, Guenon implicitly identifies the Brahytma with the “Qutb” (axial saint, pole of the age) of Sufism (pg. 19), and puts forth the idea, common in nineteenth and early twentieth century occultism, of Shambhala/Agharti as the true center of all initiatic tradition, with the hidden King of the World as the head of the “highest circle” of the “initiatic hierarchy” (pg. 23). This “highest circle” corresponds to the “secret chiefs” of much of Western occultism (especially prominent in the teachings of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn), the “Mahatmas” of Theosophy, and the Aqtab of Sufism.
Naturally, many people (especially Muslims, Christians, and Jews) will be disturbed that Tibetan Buddhism envisions an apocalyptic scenario in which all forms of monotheism are violently destroyed, and that said destruction is seen as the key to universal peace and tranquility. This is made especially disturbing for Muslims by the way that many of the descriptions of the King of the World resemble the statements related from the Prophet Muhammad (May God bless him and grant him peace) about the coming of al-Masih ad-Dajjal (the False Messiah/Antichrist).
In brief, the Dajjal is a false savior who presents himself as the true and living God, comes as a figure of world peace and unification, but perpetrates brutal war against the true believers. His reign culminates in the second coming of Jesus (peace be upon him), who slays the Dajjal and establishes a true era of peace and Godliness. The Brahytma’s earthly paradise, Shambhala, and his powers over the inferno remind one of the following statement of the Prophet (PBUH):
He (Dajjal) will have a paradise and a hell with him, but his paradise will be a hell and his hell will be a paradise. (Sahih Muslim, no. 5222)Like Brahytma, the Dajjal shows strange powers over the earth and can appear wherever he pleases:
Under the feet of the Dajjal the earth will be rolled up as the skin of the ram is rolled up from wool. (Hakim al-Nishaburi, Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, 4; 529-530)The expression “rolling up the earth” (tayy al-ard) is used in Arabic to refer to a sort of travel (similar to teleportation) where, rather than moving to a destination, the destination moves to you.
The lama’s statements about Brahytma’s powers over the sky and vegetation call to mind this statement about Dajjal:
Then he will command the sky to rain, and the earth to bring forth vegetation, and their cattle will come back to them in the evening, with their humps very high, and their udders full of milk, and their flanks stretched. – (Sahih Muslim, 5228)The Dajjal also possesses the apparent power over life and death ascribed to the King of the World:
Part of his fitnah will be that he will say to a Bedouin, 'Do you think that if I resurrect your father and mother for you that you will testify that I am your lord?’ He will say, ‘Yes.’ So two devils will appear to him in the image of his father and mother, saying, ‘O my son, follow him for he is your lord.’ (Sunan Ibn Majah, no. 4067)The deification which the Brahytma receives from Tibetan Buddhism and occult groups parallels the deification the Dajjal will receive when he presents himself to the world as king. The powers he is ascribed in Tibetan legend parallel those of the Dajjal in near-exact detail, and the world conquest and mass-slaughter of Muslims by Rudra Chakrin, Brahytma’s final incarnation, seem to put the resemblance beyond mere coincidence. The Brahytma’s place in western occultism as the supreme God and central figure of all initiation connect him with the Egyptian deity Horus, who, as other posts on this blog have shown, also possesses a strong identification with the Dajjal. Taken together, all these factors make it easy to conclude that the Brahytma/Rudra Chakrin is the Dajjal of Islamic eschatology.